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Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    Through the ballot box, over 98% voted in favor of replacing the monarchy with an Islamic Republic."
  • Life in exile

    Interpretation of Dawn Pray

  • Imam Khomeini believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance.5;">In a speech given to a huge crowd on the first day of returning to Iran, Imam Khomeini attacked the government of Shapoor Bakhtiar promising "I shall punch their teeth in. This was his most famous and influential work and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time): 

    • Although outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, the West (America in particular) became alarmed by the possibility of the Islamic Revolution spreading throughout the oil-exporting Persian Gulf oil and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed. But Reza Shah transformed the Iranian monarchy into a modern dictatorship. When the White Revolution proclaimed by the Shah's government in Iran called for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women, profit sharing in industry, and an anti-illiteracy campaign in the nation's schools.5;">As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Imam Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.khamenei.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1. First, his interest in Islamic studies surpassed the bounds of traditional subjects of Islamic law (Sharia), jurisprudence (Fiqh), and principles (Usul) and the like.5;">Iran-Iraq War

       

      As protest grew, so did Imam Khomeini’s profile and importance.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/276.ir/d/2015/09/14/3/261.5;">Forty Hadiths (Forty Traditions)  

    • Imam Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

      Imam KhomeiniTahrir al-Wasilah

    •  

      Imam Khomeini led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in mysticism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy.

      Imam Khomeini adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist would insure Sharia was properly followed (Velayat-e Faqih). He was keenly interested in philosophy and ethics.khamenei. At the age of six he began to study the Quran, Islam's holy book.5;">Family and descendants

      Imam KhomeiniPolitical thought and legacy

      Velayat-e Faqih

    • In January 1963, the Shah announced a six-point program of reform called the White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade. During the last few months of his exile, Imam Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution.

      Early Political Activity

      With what many believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988).5;">Imam Khomeini's definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework.

      Death and funeral

      On February 11, Imam Khomeini declared a provisional government. Imam Khomeini was also a highly-influential and innovative Islamic political theorist, most noted for his development of the theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

      Hajj

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Serr al-Salat (Secrets of Prayers)

  • Imam Khomeini first became politically active in 1962.5;">Jihad-e Akbar (The Greater Struggle)
  • Grand Leader of Islamic Republic of Iran

    Imam Khomeini's father was murdered when he was five months old, and he was raised by his mother and one of his aunts.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/278.5;">Only two weeks after the Shah fled Iran on January 16, 1979, Imam Khomeini returned to Iran triumphantly, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress.jpg" width="600" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    Establishment of new government

    In this time he could represent his religious-political ideas openly.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/283.khamenei."

    Works:

    • Imam Khomeini’s Biography

      But because of Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, most rulers of other Muslim nations turned against him and supported Iraq in the imposed war against Iran, even though most of Islamic parties and organizations supported his idea.5;">Letter to Mikhail S.5;">Life under Imam Khomeini

      Following Imam Khomeini's public denunciation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as a "wretched miserable man" and his arrest, on June 5, 1963 (Khordad 15, on the Iranian calendar), three days of major riots erupted throughout Iran with nearly 400 killed.

      During November of 1964, Imam Khomeini made a denunciation of both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted to American military personnel in Iran by the Shah. He was a Seyyed from a religious family that are descendants of Prophet Mohammad, through the seventh Imam, (Imam Mousa Kazem).5;">Opposition to capitulation

      Family and early years

      Return to Iran

      Imam Khomeini was considered a Marja-e taqlid to many Muslims, and in Iran was officially addressed as Imam rather than Grand Ayatollah; his supporters adhere to this convention.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/275.5;">Relationship with other Islamic nations

      Imam KhomeiniImam Khomeini and Ayatollah KhameneiImam KhomeiniFollowing Imam Khomeini’s demise, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei came to be selected on June 4, 1989 by the Assembly of Experts to be his successor, in accordance with the Constitution. He received his early education at home and at the local school, under the supervision of Mullah Abdul-Qassem and Sheikh Jaffar, and was under the guardianship of his elder brother, Ayatollah Pasandideh, until he was 18 years old.e.

       

      Imam Khomeini intended to reconstruct Muslim unity and solidarity, so he declared the birth week of Prophet of Islam (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi'al-Awwal in Islamic Hegira calendar) as the Unity Week.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

      Many of Imam Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution.5;">Imam KhomeiniThat the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life.5;">Under Imam Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women.5;">Imam Khomeini spent over 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq.

      This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice: corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/282. Arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted, instead, to the seminary in Arak, which was renowned for its scholastic brilliance under the leadership of Ayatollah Sheikh Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi (himself a pupil of some of the greatest scholars of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq).khamenei.5;"> 

      Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan and undermine attempts by Iranian Islamic revolutionaries to incite the Shia majority of his country.5;">In 1921, Imam Khomeini commenced his studies in Arak.5;">Imam KhomeiniInterpretation of Forces of Reason and Negligence Tradition 

    • Imam KhomeiniIn December 1988 (before the fall of the Berlin Wall), Ayatollah Imam Khomeini sent a letter to USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev predicting the fall of Communism and inviting him to study and research Islam.

      In early 1989, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, an Indian-born British author. Later, when he was 15, his mother and aunt died in the same year."

      A modified form of this Velayat-e Faqih system was adopted after Imam Khomeini and his followers took power, and he became the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Grand Leader. Imam Khomeini persuaded the other senior Marjas of Qom to decree a boycott of the referendum that the Shah had planned to obtain the appearance of popular approval for his White Revolution. He believed that the government was an un-Islamic and illegitimate institution usurping the legitimate authority of the supreme religious leader (Faqih), who should rule as both the spiritual and temporal guardian of the Muslim community (Umma). His now well-known book, Kashf-e Asrar (Discovery of Secrets) was a point by point refutation of Asrar-e Hezar Saleh (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (March 21, 1963) be cancelled as a sign of protest against government policies.5;">Imam KhomeiniIn early 1970 Imam Khomeini gave a lecture series in Najaf on Islamic Government which later was published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih). His paternal grandfather was Seyyed Ahmad Musavi, whose third wife, Sakineh, gave birth to Mostafa in 1856.5;">Although during this scholarly phase of his life Imam Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings revealed that he firmly believed from the beginning in political activism by clerics.

      Interpretation of Surah Fatihah

    • Also this was a turning point in political viewpoint of Islam. Shia clergies had advised them to be just and obey Ja'fari jurisprudence. Initially, he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964, where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. On March 30, 1979, and March 31, 1979, the provisional government asked all Iranians sixteen years of age and older, male and female, to vote in a referendum on the question of accepting an Islamic Republic as the new form of government and constitution.

    Ruhollah Mousavi was born to Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi and Hajieh Agha Khanum, also called Hajar, in the town of Khomein, about 300 kilometers south of the capital Tehran, Iran, possibly on May 17, 1900 or September 24, 1902.5;">Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Imam Khomeini and his successors.5;">Since Sharia, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia (Islamic jurists are such people), and that the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice, as well as having intelligence and administrative ability.5;">

    Imam Khomeini became a Marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi. Two days later Shah took armored column to Qom, and he delivered a speech harshly attacking the ''ulama'' as a class. In his Islamic Government (Hokumat-e Islami) — which is a collection of his lectures in Najaf published in 1970 — he rejected both the Iranian Constitution as an alien import from Belgium and monarchy in general. Most of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially the powerful and privileged religious scholars (Ulama) who felt keenly threatened.5;">Imam Khomeini's grandson Seyyed Hassan Khomeini, son of the late Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is also a cleric and the trustee of Imam Khomeini's shrine. We would like to be free.

    Opposition to White Revolution

    Adab-e Salat (The Disciplines of Prayers)       

  • Early Years

    Imam Ayatollah Seyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was a Muslim cleric and Marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

    Rushdie Fatwa

    After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Imam Khomeini died of cancer on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 89."

     

    In 1929, Imam Khomeini married Batol Saqafi Khomeini, the daughter of a cleric in Tehran. His last will and testament largely focuses on this line of thought, encouraging both the general Iranian populace, the lower economic classes in particular, and the clergy to maintain their commitment to fulfilling Islamic revolutionary ideals.5;">In the meantime, however, Imam Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade.

    Conservative estimates put the welcoming crowd of Iranians at least three million.5;">Logically, in the 1970s, as contrasted with the 1940s, he no longer accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907, an idea that was clearly evidenced by his book Kashf-e Asrar.jpg" width="400" style="color: rgb(192, 192, 192); background-color: black; box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

  • Imam Khomeini

     

    Introduction

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